A while ago PBS or some such show had a special on Walmart and how they know precisely how much of a certain item to stock. They use complex statistics and know how many pop tarts people want under different conditions.
Contrast that with Target’s data gathering. They gather data on individual habits. And, as we know from the book “The Power of Habit” Target can predict when a woman is pregnant before she knows.
We also know that people go to certain stores based on income level.
Those earning below $30,000 (per year) tend to go to Dollar General, Dollar Tree etc. for their needs.
Those earning $30,000-$80,000 (per year) typically go to Walmart for basic needs (and I assume Kroger)
Those earning $80,000-$120,000 (per year) typically go to Target for their stuffs (and I assume Publix)
I find it interesting that the mass way of thinking about people works or, at least, is used for services for people in lower income brackets. And, the chain aiming for clients with higher income collect and study individual patterns. It seems the masses are historically poor.